Units

Calculations for units

k (kilo)
1,000
(thousand), or 103
M (mega)
1,000,000
(million), or 106
G (giga)
1,000,000,000
(billion), or 109
T (tera)
1,000,000,000,000
(trillion), or 1012
P (peta)
1,000,000,000,000,000
(quadrillion), or 1015
E (exa)
1,000,000,000,000,000,000
(quintillion), or 1018

Most relevant units for energy transition

bbl barrel – standard quantity of oil equaling 159 liters
bcm billion cubic meters or billion m3
bpd barrels per day
BOE Barrels of Oil Equivalent. 1 BOE = 41.868 GJ
°C degree Celsius
cm centimeter
EJ exajoule = 1018 joules
GJ gigajoule = 109 joules
Gt gigatonne = 109 metric ton
Gtpa ‘gigatonne per annum’, gigatonne per year
GW gigawatt = 109 watts (see watt)
GWh gigawatt hour = 109 watt hour
ha hectare – 10,000 m2
hr hour
J joule = 1 kg x 1 m2/s2, 1 J is the amount of energy spent when a force of one newton is applied over a displacement of one meter
kg kilogram = 1,000 gram
km kilometer = 1,000 meter
kt kilotonne = 1,000 metric tonnes
kW kilowatt = 1,000 watts (see watt)
kWh kilowatt hour
L 1 liter = 1,000 cc (cm3), 1 L of pure water has a mass of 1 kg at 25°C
m meter
m2 square meter
m3 cubic meter
mbd million barrels per day
Mio million, mega
MJ megajoule = 106 joules
Mt megatonne = 106 metric tonnes
Mtpa megatonne per year
Mtoe million tonne oil equivalent
MW megawatt = 106 watt (see watt)
N newton, 1 N is the force required to accelerate 1 kg at rate of 1 m/s2
Nm3 normal cubic meter. At 0°C and pressure of 1.013 bar.
pa ‘per annum’, per year
PJ petajoule = 1015 joules
ppm parts per million
t tonne = 1,000 kilogram
tpa ‘tonne per annum’, tonne per year
TW terawatt = 1012 watt (see watt)
TWh terawatt hour = 1012 watt hour
W watt = 1 J/s. 1 joule per second